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Title: Coarse-grained second-order response theory
Authors: Müller, Fenna
Basu, Urna
Sollich, Peter
Krüger, Matthias
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Publisher: American Physical Society
Citation: Physical Review Research, 2020, Vol.2, p043123
Abstract: While linear response theory, manifested by the fluctuation dissipation theorem, can be applied on any length scale, nonlinear response theory is fundamentally of microscopic nature. We develop an exact theoretical framework for analyzing nonlinear (second order) response of coarse grained observables to time-dependent perturbations, using a path-integral formalism. The resulting expressions involve correlations of the observable with coarse grained path weights. The time symmetric part of these weights depends on paths and perturbation protocol in a complex manner, and, furthermore, the absence of Markovianity prevents slicing of the coarse grained path integral. Despite this, we show that the response function can be expressed in terms of path weights corresponding to a single-step perturbation. This formalism thus leads to an extrapolation scheme, which circumvents the mentioned difficulties, and where measuring linear responses of coarse-grained variables suffices to determine their second order response. We illustrate the validity of the formalism with the examples of an exactly solvable four-state model and the near-critical Ising model.
Description: Open Access
ISSN: 2469-9896
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Copyright: 2020 American Physical Society
Appears in Collections:Research Papers (TP)

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