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Title: Evolution of Intergalactic Gas in the Neighborhood of Dwarf Galaxies and Its Manifestations in the HI 21 cm Line
Authors: Vasiliev, Evgenii O.
Ryabova, M V
Shchekinov, Yuri
Sethi, S.K.
Keywords: galaxies
dwarf—intergalactic medium
Issue Date: Oct-2018
Publisher: Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Citation: Astrophysical Bulletin, 2018, Vol.73, p401–412
Abstract: Low-mass galaxies are known to have played the crucial role in the hydrogen reionization in the Universe. In this paper we investigate the contribution of soft x-ray radiation (E ∼ 0.1–1 keV) from dwarf galaxies to hydrogen ionization during the initial reionization stages. The only possible sources of this radiation in the process of star formation in dwarf galaxies during the epochs preceding the hydrogen reionization epoch are hot intermediate-mass stars (M ∼ 5–8 M ) that entered the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage and massive x-ray binaries. We analyze the evolution of the intergalactic gas in the neighborhood of a dwarf galaxy with a total mass of 6 × 108M formed at the redshift of z ∼ 15 and having constant star-formation rate of 0.01–0.1 M yr−1 over a starburst with a duration of up to 100 Myr. We show that the radiation from AGB stars heats intergalactic gas to above 100 K and ensures its ionization xe >∼ 0.03 within about 4–10 kpc from the galaxy in the case of a star-formation rate of star formation 0.03–0.1 M yr−1, and that after the end of the starburst this region remains quasi-stationary over the following 200–300 Myr, i.e., until z ∼ 7.5. Formation of x-ray binaries form in dwarf galaxies at z ∼ 15 results in a 2–3 and 5–6 times greater size of the ionized and heated region compared to the case where ionization is produced by AGB stars exclusively, if computed with the “x-ray luminosity–star-formation rate” dependence (LX ∼ fXSFR) factor fX = 0.1 and fX ∼ 1, respectively. For fX <∼ 0.03 the effect of x-ray binaries is smaller that that of AGB star population. Lyα emission, heating, and ionization of the intergalactic gas in the neighborhood of dwarf galaxies result in the excitation of the 21 cm HI line. We found that during the period of the starburst end at z ∼11.5–12.5 the brightness temperature in the neighborhood of galaxies is 15–25 mK and the region where the brightness temperature remains close to its maximum has a size of about 12–30 kpc. Hence the epoch of the starburst end is most favorable for 21 cm HI line observations of dwarf galaxies, because at that time the size of the region of maximum brightness temperature is the greatest over the entire evolution of the dwarf galaxy. In the case of the sizes corresponding to almost 0 . 1 for z ∼ 12 regions with maximum emission can be detected with the Square
Description: Restricted Access. An open-access version is available at (one of the alternative locations)
ISSN: 1990-3413 (Print)
1990-3421 (Electronic)
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Copyright: 2018, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.,
Appears in Collections:Research Papers (A&A)

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