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Title: On the detection of global 21-cm signal from reionization using interferometers
Authors: Singh, Saurabh
Subrahmanyan, Ravi
Udaya Shankar, N.
Raghunathan, A.
Keywords: Interferometric
Issue Date: 20-Dec-2015
Publisher: IOP Sciences for The American Astronomical Society
Citation: The Astrophysical Journal, 2015, Vol.815, p88
Abstract: Detection of the global redshifted 21-cm signal is an excellent means of deciphering the physical processes during the Dark Ages and subsequent Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, detection of this faint monopole is challenging due to the high precision required in instrumental calibration and modeling of substantially brighter foregrounds and instrumental systematics. In particular, modeling of receiver noise with mK accuracy and its separation remains a formidable task in experiments aiming to detect the global signal using single-element spectral radiometers. Interferometers do not respond to receiver noise; therefore, here we explore the theory of the response of interferometers to global signals. In other words, we discuss the spatial coherence in the electric field arising from the monopole component of the 21-cm signal and methods for its detection using sensor arrays. We proceed by first deriving the response to uniform sky of two-element interferometers made of unit dipole and resonant loop antennas, then extend the analysis to interferometers made of one-dimensional arrays and also consider two-dimensional aperture antennas. Finally, we describe methods by which the coherence might be enhanced so that the interferometer measurements yield improved sensitivity to the monopole component. We conclude (a) that it is indeed possible to measure the global 21-cm from EoR using interferometers, (b) that a practically useful configuration is with omnidirectional antennas as interferometer elements, and (c) that the spatial coherence may be enhanced using, for example, a space beam splitter between the interferometer elements.
Description: Restricted Access. An open-access version is available at (one of the alternative locations)
ISSN: 0004-637X
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Copyright: 2015 American Astronomical Society
Appears in Collections:Research Papers (A&A)

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