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Title:  Zeropoint energy and continuous creation of matter in an expanding universe 
Authors:  Kumar, N. 
Issue Date:  1969 
Publisher:  Institute of Pure and Applied Physics 
Citation:  Progress of Theoretical Physics, 1969, Vol.41, p382390 
Abstract:  A purely Kinematic model of universe is considered that is described a priori by, (i) the RobertsonWalker spacetime metric, (ii) the classical conservation law for energymass, and (iii) the observational fact of uniform Hubble expansion. It is shown that continuous creation of matter takes place in such a universe as a direct consequence of a secular quantum effect, provided that the physical vacuum is treated as the ground state of a certain quantized field obeying Bose statistics. Under the adiabatic hypothesis, the zeropoint energy content per unit proper volume of the physical vacuum decreases parametrically (i.e. as a function of a timedependent cutoff parameter) due to the cosmological redshift, concomitant with the Hubble expansion. This secular zeropoint energy defect reappears necessarily as an accession of observable energymass (so as to satisfy the conservation law) and may be expected to compensate for the material rarefaction due to the universal expansion. The observable energymass density ρ(t) at any epoch t, normalized with respect to its value ρ(0) at the epoch t = 0, is given by a simple equation
ξη(t) ≡ρ(t)/ρ(0) = (1+η)e3Htηe4Ht,
where η is an adjustable parameter (dimensionless) and H the Hubble constant. Based on certain heuristic reckonings, the age T0 of the universe is shown to be given by
T0 = H1 ln (4/3),
which is remarkably enough independent of η. 
Description:  Restricted Access. 
URI:  http://hdl.handle.net/2289/4774 
ISSN:  0033068X 13474081 (Online) 
Alternative Location:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/PTP.41.382 
Copyright:  1969, Institute of Pure and Applied Physics 
Appears in Collections:  Research Papers (TP)

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